90.9 WBUR - Boston's NPR news station
Top Stories:
PLEDGE NOW

Mobile Slaughterhouse Keeps Local Farmers Moving

Sam Anderson slaughtered the chickens in the cooler himself. (Adam Ragusea/WBUR)

Sam Anderson slaughtered the chickens in the cooler himself. (Adam Ragusea/WBUR)

It may seem like summer has slipped away in Boston, but we still have many more weeks of farm stands and farmers markets to look forward to.

The demand for locally grown food has skyrocketed in recent years, but there’s one area where Massachusetts farmers have had trouble satisfying demand: meat. Livestock farming has a lot more start-up costs and regulatory hurdles associated with it than farming vegetables.

Take chickens — they’re actually quite easy to grow, but meat animals destined for the consumer market have to be slaughtered in USDA-approved processing facilities. There is, currently, no legal chicken processing facility available to small-scale farmers in Massachusetts.

But advocates for alternative agriculture say they’ve figured out a way around that problem.

A Slaughterhouse On Wheels

It used to be simple. Farmer grows chicken, farmer kills chicken, consumer buys chicken, everybody eats and repeats.

But with the rise of factory livestock farming about 30 years ago, government regulation of the meat industry stepped up accordingly. That’s also about the time that New England’s chicken industry moved south to places like Alabama and Missouri, where Tyson and Perdue lord over huge poultry factories policed by armies of USDA inspectors.

Today, we have no such thing up north. What we do have are people like Jennifer Hashley.

“After college, I started learning more and more about where our food comes from and got a little disturbed by that, so I stopped eating meat for a long time,” Hashley said.

The New Entry Sustainable Farming Project's Mobile Poultry Processing Unit hopes to provide a low-cost way for farmers to raise and slaughter meat. (Adam Ragusea/WBUR)

The Mobile Poultry Processing Unit hopes to provide a low-cost way for farmers to raise and slaughter meat. (Adam Ragusea/WBUR)

Hashley did a tour in the Peace Corps working with farmers in Honduras. She came back and attended an organic farming program at the University of California Santa Cruz. Now she and her husband raise chickens, pigs, sheep and rabbits on a small farm in Concord. She eats them all, by the way. And she also directs Tufts University’s New Entry Sustainable Farming Project, a program that’s basically helping a new generation of independent farmers relearn what they’d done for millennia.

“It’s great to be able to give back,” Hashley said. “I mean, my vision would be to see many many more small-scale farmers scattered across the landscape. I think it’s good food security for our communities.”

Hashley used to take her birds to a small poultry operation in Boston’s Chinatown, but that got shut down. Now, the closest USDA-approved poultry processing facility is in northern Vermont. Large farms can build their own processing facility for about $1 million — not an option for people like Hashley.

The solution, Hashley says, is the thing she’s busy setting up. The Mobile Poultry Processing Unit, or MPPU. Literally, it’s a slaughterhouse on wheels.

“This is a great alternative because it’s shared infrastructure,” Hashley said. “It moves from farm to farm, not every farm has to build their entire processing facility.”

The MPPU is a grant-funded joint project between Hashley’s organization at Tufts and the New England Small Farm Institute in Belchertown. And there’s actually two of them. The first one, built on a flatbed trailer, serves western Massachusetts. The newer model, which made its debut this summer, serves eastern Massachusetts and looks kind of like a small mobile home.

Farmers get certified on the unit and then they hook it up to a truck, drive it to their farm, do their dirty work and drive it back — all for a base rate of $175 a day.

Feeding A Hungry Market

The Smith Farm in Dracut is a training site for the New Entry Sustainable Farming Project. Small-scale farmers-to-be work on the farm growing organic corn, tomatoes, greens and some beautiful chickens.

“We raise them here and we move them every day on fresh pasture,” Hashley said.

The chickens usually cluck peacefully around the farm yard. Being raised for meat, though, their days are numbered.

You’ve probably already figured out this story is not going to end well for the little guys. But if you eat chicken, bear in mind that they have basically the best last day a meat chicken could hope for.

On what’s called the “dirty side” of the MPPU, Sam Anderson slipped on some serious-looking heavy rubber gloves. He’s the livestock coordinator with the New Entry project. Twenty-something, slender, with hipster glasses, he looks like he should be working with PETA. But he is not.

Pasture-raised chicken is more expensive than most chicken you'd find at a grocery store. (Adam Ragusea/WBUR)

Pasture-raised chicken is more expensive than most chicken you'd find at a grocery store. (Adam Ragusea/WBUR)

He suspended a chicken upside down in a cone and cut its throat with a knife that simultaneously delivers an electric stun.

The birds twitch violently for a couple minutes after they’re dead. Once they bled out, Anderson transferred the carcasses to a vat of hot water called “the scalder.”

“They rotate around in there and the feathers come off,” Anderson said. “Then they go into the plucker.”

Part of the advantage of slaughtering birds on a small scale, one by one, with your own hands, is that you can make sure the chicken is actually dead. That doesn’t always happen in factory slaughterhouses. And you don’t want to be alive when you go into the scalder or the plucker.

Over on the so-called “clean side” of the unit, half a dozen volunteers are waiting to help gut and package the birds. The New Entry program sells their wares on the Tufts campus and they sent out an email asking if any of their customers wanted to come help out and learn where their meat comes from.

Tufts grad student Eva Agudelo figured she was game, but standing next to the mobile unit with a knife and a large pair of tweezers, she looked slightly traumatized.

“I am currently removing the feathers from around the anus of the chicken and I’m gonna cut into its neck area and try to get out the top part of the stomach and intestines,” Agudelo narrated. “It’s still really warm … It’s really gross.”

More than 100 Massachusetts farmers have gotten trained on the Mobile Poultry Processing Unit, though right now, only four farms are active users. It’s really more of a demonstration project, to show small-scale farmers how they might pool their resources and start producing more locally raised, humanely killed meat, without the prohibitive start-up costs.

If the New Entry program offers any indication, there’s a hungry market out there.

On the Tufts campus in Medford, Anderson, the knife-wielding hipster, delivered his birds to a grateful public. He sells Cornish Cross chickens for $5.75 a pound and Red Cross chickens for $6 a pound.

Now, $6 a pound is lot more than the buck or two a pound you might pay at the grocery store. Despite the cost, Ethan Barron, the men’s track coach at Tufts, is a repeat customer.

“I got $80 on me, so that’s going to limit my choices,” Barron said. “The infant son is in the car, so even though I don’t make a lot of money, I will gladly fork over more money for higher quality food knowing that he’s gonna get the best.”


More:


Other stories from this show:

Please follow our community rules when engaging in comment discussion on this site.
  • Laurie Macintosh

    Why do the birds “twitch violently for a couple of minutes”? My mother, 95, grew up on a farm in IL in the 20s. She recalls her mother chasing chickens in the yard, catching one, ringing it’s neck by swinging it around quickly, and the neck broke quickly, the bird was decapitated,  and there was no twitching. Is today’s method the most humane method?

    • Aragusea

      According to my reading, the movement is the result of the autonomic nervous system firing away after the brain has ceased to be involved, and is quite common. Though, perhaps a more accurate way I could have written the sentence would have been, “the birds twitch violently for UP TO a couple of minutes.” Most of the ones I saw stopped flapping after 45 seconds or so.

    • boy from ohio

      My family raised and butchered our own chickens when I was a kid.  During the butchering process, after the head was quickly chopped off with a hatchet, it was not uncommon for the chicken to flop around or even run a distance without its head.  Not sure how to do it more quickly without chemicals.

      • Aragusea

        hence “running around like a chicken with its head cut off”

  • Cconley09

    there’s actually another…and maybe the first in MA, on Martha’s Vineyard. It’s been in use here for several years.

    • Aragusea

      Interesting, just looked this up. I suspect the reason none of my sources mentioned this is that it’s so small (an MPPT, for “trailer,” not MPPU). The newer of the two mainland MPPUs that I saw was much more extensive. But point taken, and link below:

      http://www.islandgrown.org/poultry-program/

    • Sam A

      True – Island Grown Initiative is doing great work and have been important players, along with New Entry and the New England Small Farm Institute, in working with regulators to pave the way for more poultry processing options in the state. The IGI unit does operate a bit differently, but it’s the same principle. Delayed props to our friends on the Vineyard!

  • Abbe Lakenville

    Wow – no mention of Community Teamwork, in Lowell, through which Jennifer and Sam support the work of the New Entry program, and at which they have offices. Weird, Adam – how’d you miss that??

    • Aragusea

      Abbe, we really try to minimize the number of organizations we name check in a radio story. We’d love to give everyone their due credit, but not at the expensive barraging our listeners with an alphabet soup of names, titles, initialisms and acronyms that distract from the thrust of the story. Does Community Teamwork do fine work? I have no reason to think otherwise. Is their involvement necessary to understanding what the MPPU is all about? Not in my judgement.

  • Dee

    I know local farmers are seeing this as a plus–but I am sick thinking about the cruelty to
    animals that go on daily around us and I find myself become more of vegetarian daily and
    serving vegatarian dishes to my family and house guests likewise…..(I know the we have to
    do is ultimately put Big Agra out of business…and I look forwards to this and supporting
    rural farmers and co-ops found in Vermont and new Hampshire..The mayors & governors
    should try and bring such food markets to their cities and towns instead of the expensive
    Whole Foods markets…. 

    • Sam A

      It’s understandably easy to be turned off by the thought of animals being killed, “humanely” or not, but I also think there is an important middle ground between eating “Big Agra” meat and eating no meat at all. Since becoming (intimately!) involved in this project, I might actually eat more meat than I did before (still not very much), but now I am much choosier about knowing where it came from and how it was produced. If you disagree with the way conventional meat chickens are raised, it doesn’t mean you have to stop eating chicken altogether – but you’ll probably need to look beyond the supermarket!

Hosts Meghna Chakrabarti and Anthony Brooks introduce us to newsmakers, big thinkers and artists and bring us stories of relevance to Bostonians here and around the region. Live every weekday at 3.

  • Listen: Weekdays, 3 p.m. on 90.9 FM
  • Live Call-In: (800) 423-TALK
  • Listener Voicemail: (617) 358-0607
Most Popular
This site is best viewed with: Firefox | Internet Explorer 9 | Chrome | Safari